i get that its the point but these films just feel so childish, im sure if i was in highschool i would love it. from around the first crows zero to ace attorney are definitely miike's anime hair years. there is almost an interesting side plot about growing up idolising the yakuza, wanting to join it and then being thrown into the real world to try to make a life for yourself but that goes nowhere, i dont even know why those characters are included in this one.
The concept of zero, as used in a number system, fully developed in human society around the fifth century A.D., or potentially a few centuries earlier, Live Science previously reported. For instance, the notion of multiplying 8 by 0, or adding 0 to 10, didn't emerge until then. The concept of "none," or the absence of any quantity, likely emerged earlier, but this differs from using zero as a distinct "quantity," in and of itself.
Zero represents that emptiness, the absence of apples, and "that obviously requires very abstract thinking ... thinking that is detached from empirical reality," Nieder said. And now, by peering into the brains of crows, Nieder and his colleagues have discovered that the birds' nerve cells, or neurons, encode "zero" as they do other numbers. The birds' brain activity patterns also support the idea that zero falls before "1" on crows' mental number line, so to speak.
In the new study, published June 2 in The Journal of Neuroscience, the team ran experiments with two male carrion crows (Corvus corone), during which the birds sat on a wooden perch and interacted with a computer monitor in front of them. In each trial, a grey screen containing zero to four black dots popped up in front of the crows; this "sample" image was followed by a "test" image containing either the same or a different number of dots.
In a previous study using the same setup, the group showed that crows could successfully identify the matched and unmatched pairs of images about 75% of the time after undergoing extensive training for the experiment, according to a report published in 2015 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. This previous study did not include an empty screen, standing in for zero, but it did demonstrate that the crows could differentiate an image containing three dots from a screen containing five, for instance.
In the more recent study, which included a blank screen, "what we found is that the crows, after this training, could discriminate zero from the other countable numerosities," Nieder said. However, importantly, the birds still demonstrated the numerical distance effect in trials that included the empty screen.
That means that the birds mixed up the zero-dot image with the one-dot image more often than with two-, three- or four-dot images, Nieder explained. "This is an indication that they treat the empty set, not just as 'nothing' versus 'something,' but really as a numerical quantity," in that they perceive zero dots as proximal to one dot.
To better understand the brain activity behind these behaviors, the team implanted tiny, glass-coated wires into the birds' brains to record electrical activity while the crows repeated the behavioral tests. The chosen neurons sat within a region known as the pallium, which is located toward the back of the bird brain and handles high-level cognitive functions.
These patterns of brain activity hinted at how the crows perceive numerical values in relation to each other, Nieder said. "They are inherently representing this ordinality aspect of numbers, this ordering along a number line, so that after one comes two and after two comes three, and so on," he said.
In combination, the observed patterns of behavior and brain activity suggest that, yes, crows indeed grasp the concept of zero, the authors concluded. What utility this holds for the animals, if any, remains unclear, Nieder told Live Science. While being able to distinguish one piece of fruit from two can be useful for survival, for instance, "I don't see an immediate advantage for these animals to understand nothing as a quantity," he said.
Other behavioral studies have shown that rhesus macaques and honeybees also demonstrate an understanding of zero. In terms of brain activity linked to zero, multiple (opens in new tab) studies have shown that monkeys carry specially tuned neurons for the number zero, just like crows. And more recently, Nieder and his colleagues demonstrated the same in humans, as described in a 2018 report in the journal Neuron.
"I think that initially it sounds a little crazy to ask whether animals understand zero, because zero is a very, very special, almost magical, number that we have," Nieder said. But now, growing evidence hints that more animals may understand the concept of zero than scientists originally realized.
Even so, Nieder said he'd be surprised if animals like amphibians or reptiles could do mathematical calculations that rely on an understanding of zero, since their learning capabilities don't match that of mammals and birds. But given that birds and mammals split off from their common ancestor well before the extinction of the dinosaurs, the fact that they share overlapping cognitive abilities is also remarkable, Nieder said.
The second describes the minimum number of times one instance can be related to others. It can be zero or one, and accordingly describes the relationship as optional or mandatory.
The action takes place in a vaguely Gotham-city like environment, where no one seems to be an innocent passer-by, or even just a female (besides the two girls who have one minute on-screen and are purely the sexual and romantic interest). The visuals indicators are quite strong. It is connected to the manga roots of the feature. So, what makes the boys look like yakuza-to-be? They have funky haircuts, have their faces covered with band-aids and contusions (they fight a lot, duh), they smoke and never seem to go to class, although they will apparently eventually graduate. Luckily for viewers, it is also quite easy to know who is from the good side (Suzuran): they wear black uniforms, reminding of the crows, and who is from the bad side (Housen): they wear white.
WEST NILE VIRUS IS A mosquito-borne flavivirus that sporadically causes local outbreaks in humans, birds, and horses in Africa, Europe, and Asia (Hubalek and Halouzka 1999, Murgue et al. 2001, Zeller and Schuffenecker 2004). The virus did not receive much attention until it was detected in New York in 1999, after which it rapidly spread across the North American continent and the Caribbean, causing human, equine, and avian infections and deaths. Infections are mostly subclinical, but clinical infection may range in severity from mild fever to (fatal) encephalitis (Campbell et al. 2002, Petersen and Marfin 2002). Birds are assumed to be the primary hosts in the transmission cycle of WNV, and ornithophilic mosquitoes the primary vectors (Hayes et al. 2005), but direct transmission routes between birds and between mosquitoes have been demonstrated experimentally. Speculations on oral transmission in birds arose as early as winter 2000, when a red-tailed hawk died from WNV at a time when mosquitoes were unlikely to be active (Garmendia et al. 2000). Soon after, McLean et al. (2001) reported transmission between crows held in the same cage in the absence of mosquitoes, probably via skin contact or secretions. Komar et al. (2003) also demonstrated WNV transmission between crows in the same cage, as well as oral transmission (from infected carcasses to crows). In all experiments, high infection rates were observed. Direct transmission has also been demonstrated for domestic geese (Bavet-Noach et al. 2003, Austin et al. 2004). Bird-to-bird transmission might explain the pattern of spread of WNV in the recent North American epidemic, which shows a radiating pattern (Rappole and Hubalek 2003) rather than the mainly southward-directed movements one might expect if migratory birds were the principal means of spread (as postulated by several authors [Rappole et al. 2000, Peterson et al. 2003, Rappole and Hubalek 2003, Reed et al. 2003, Hubalek 2004]).
American crows are extremely vulnerable to WNV and have died in large numbers during the epidemic. Their opportunistic carrion feeding, as well as feeding on dead congeners, might expose them to the virus, as carcasses are often scavenged upon within a... 2b1af7f3a8